Categories
Exhibition Inspiration Sources

Exhibitions and galleries

I am a regular visitor to the major London Galleries and have also visited exhibitions relevant to this course in Cambridge, Suffolk, Netherlands and USA. Below is a list of relevant exhibitions that I refer to for inspiration in this course, with a particular focus on exhibitions visited while studying the course: October 2016 – September 2018.  Galleries are listed in alphabetical order with the most recent exhibitions visited  first.

Alde Valley Spring Festival

I, Claudius Spring Exhibition (April 21 to May 20 2018)

Aldeburgh Peter Peers Gallery

Maggi Hambling: Edge (June-July 2017) see Marlborough Arts website for catalogue

Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam

From Bosch to Bruegel – Uncovering Everyday Life (November 2015 – January 2016)

Rembrandt Etchings permanent collection

Dutch landscape permanent collection

British Museum

Hokusai: Beyond the Great Wave  (25 May – 13 August 2017)

Picasso post-war prints: lithographs and aquatints (27 January – 3 March 2017)

Japanese woodblock printing: a craft of precision  (25 May – 16 July 2017)

Places of the mind: British watercolour landscapes 1850–1950 (23 February – 28 August 2017)

Maggi Hambling – Touch: works on paper  (8 September 2016 –29 January 2017)

Defining beauty the body in ancient Greek art (26 March – 5 July 2015)

Drawing in silver and gold: Leonardo to Jasper Johns (10 September – 6 December 2015)

Recent acquisitions two sets of Picasso linocuts (10 January – 6 May 2014)

Germany divided: Baselitz and his generation From the Duerckheim Collection (6 February – 31 August 2014)

Courtauld Gallery, London

Soutine’s Portraits: Waiters, Cooks and Bellhops (October 19 2017 – January 21 2018)

Rodin and Dance: The Essence of Movement  (20 October 2016 – 22 January 2017)

Egon Schiele: The Radical Nude  (23 October 2014 to 18 January 2015)

The Spanish Line: Drawings from Ribera to Picasso (13 October 2011 to 15 January 2012)

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Degas’ Drinker: Portraits by Marcellin Desboutin (19th September 2017 – 25th February 2018) Drypoint portraits

Degas, Desboutin and Rembrandt: parallels in prints (27 October 2017 – 25 February 2018)

Degas: A Passion for Perfection  (3 October 2017 – 14 January 2018) prints in various media

Degas: Caricature and Modernity ( 12 September 2017 – 21 January 2018) lithographs and drypoints

Fatal Consequences:The Chapman Brothers and Goya’s Disasters of War  (14 October 2014 – 8 February 2015) etchings

Maggi Hambling: The Wave (27 April – 8 August 2010) monoprints and ethcings

National Gallery

The Credit Suisse Exhibition: Monet & Architecture (9 April 2018 to 29 July 2018)

Monochrome: Painting in Black and White (1 November 2017 – 18  February  2018)  Rembrandt, Picasso, and Gerhard Richter

Drawn in Colour: Degas from the Burrell (20 September 2017 – 7 May 2018)

Beyond Caravaggio  (12 October 2016 – 15 January 2017)

Maggi Hambling: Walls of Water (26 November 2014 – 15 February 2015)

Rembrandt: The Late Works: (15 October 2014 to 18 January 2015)

Inventing Impressionism (4 March – 31 May 2015)

National Portrait Gallery

The Encounter: Drawings from Leonardo to Rembrandt (13 July – 22 October 2017)

Cézanne Portraits (October 26 2017 – February 11 2018)

Royal Academy

Abstract Expressionism  (24 September 2016 — 2 January 2017)

James Ensor Intrigue (29 October 2016 — 29 January 2017)

Anselme Kiefer (27 September — 14 December 2014)

Etching: The Infernal Method  (15 September 2017 — 19 February 2018)

Gary Hume RA: Prints Pictures  (16 February — 24 April 2017)

David Hockney: A Bigger Picture (21 January — 9 April 2012)

Snape Maltings, Suffolk

Regular sales and exhibitions of prints and landscapes from Suffolk.

Tate Britain

All Too Human: Bacon, Freud and a Century of Painting Life (28 Feb – 27 Aug 2018)

The EY Exhibition Impressionists in London (2 November 2017 – 29 April 2018)

David Hockney 9 February– 29 May 2017

Frank Auerbach  (9 Oct 2015 – 13 Mar 2016)

Tate Modern

Rothko  (26 September 2008 – 1 February 2009) and permanent exhibition

Gerhard Richter: Panorama (6 October 2011 – 8 January 2012) and permanent exhibition

Categories
1: Landscape 5: Memory Abstract Collagraph Inspiration Media Printmakers

Charles Shearer

Charles Shearer is an artist printmaker and teacher from Orkney, currently based in London. He also creates paintings and drawings of scenes inspired from his extensive travels both in the UK and overseas.

Google links to his images 

Many of his prints are single or multiplate collagraphs made from cutting, drawing and sculpting into display board. The plates are then printed using stencils and roller techniques to produce complex and multicoloured prints. This is the technique I started to explore in Assignment 5 The Dreaming.

His subjects are often ‘creative interpretations’ from his own travel sketchbooks, mostly from Wales, Ireland and his travels between London and Orkney. A key underlying theme is ‘man’s [sic] order within nature’. ‘Of particular interest are deserted buildings and the landscapes surrounding them as he describes “in a landscape stands a grand Irish ruin all in glorious decay, to contrast with a desolate and rutted land beyond the industrial estate”.

There are often fun images in his work too such as his large monoprints of King Flamingo or Night Prowl. He experiments too with texture and materials such as in Bubblewrap Joe.

In addition to making his own work he teaches printmaking at numerous art schools and runs creative print workshops. For experimental prints I produced from a workshop on ‘Cardboard Cuts’ see Collagraph techniques

For more about Charles Shearer see:

Emma Mason Arts

Exhibition at St Judes Prints

Exhibition at Southampton Solent University’s Andrews Concourse Gallery 2014- 2015.

Categories
6: Review Artists Etching Inspiration Media Monoprint Printmakers

Maggi Hambling: Parallel Project

Maggi Hambling was the artist and printmaker chosen for my Parallel Project.

Life Unleashed: Movement in the Art of Maggi Hambling

considers the different techniques she uses to communicate movement in her drawing, painting and printmaking and some of the learnings for my own printmaking practice.

Other notes and video links

Overview of her work

for British Museum ‘Touch’ exhibition 2016

“The border-line between what is tragic and what is comic interests me…They are a pathetic human way of trying to come to terms with the fact of our own death, the fact of other peoples’ deaths, the fact of the horror we see on the news everyday, the terrible things that happen. Some moments you cry, other moments you laugh” (Conversation with Judith Collins Hambling 1993 p13)

Drawing and portraits

My first introduction to Maggi Hambling was through the ‘George always’ exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery in 2009.

Then her wave and Walls of Water paintings shown at the National Gallery. These include a series of monotypes first shown at Malborough Fine Art (see the exhibition), then the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and the National Gallery.

More recently her work has been more political with the exhibitions, dealing with topics like global warming, migration and war:

How important is being ‘lesbionic’?

Book References

Hambling, M. (1993). Towards Laughter. Sunderland, UK, Northern Centre for Contemporary Art.
Hambling, M. (1998). maggi & henrietta.
Hambling, M. (2006). Maggi Hambling the Works and Conversations with Andrew Lambirth. London, Unicorn Press Ltd.
Hambling, M. (2009). The Sea. Salford Quays, The Lowry Press.
Hambling, M. (2009). You Are the Sea. Great Britain, Lux Books.
Hambling, M. (2015). War, Requiem and Aftermath. London, Unicorn Press Ltd.
Ramkalawon, J. (2016). Maggi Hambling Touch: works on paper. London, Lund Humphries and British Museum.

Maggi Hambling website

Exhibitions

Attitude towards death and relationship with Henrietta Moraes Evening Standard 1999

Categories
5: Memory Artists Inspiration

Cornelia Parker

Cornelia Ann Parker OBE, RA (born 1956) is an English sculptor and installation artist. Her work covers sculpture, photography, performance. Her work is often in collaboration with institutions dealing with political as well as psychological themes.

Her ‘violent acts’,  the light textures cast by many of her sculptures and use of found objects were an inspiration for Project 5.2 Arcadia Recycled

Videos and interviews

“Beauty is too easy,” says the 56-year-old British artist Cornelia Parker. “Often in my work I take beautiful objects and do extreme things to them, so that they are overlaid with something a bit more sinister and violent.” She laughs. “I’m sure an analyst could have a field day on me.”

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/10077197/Hay-2013-Artist-Cornelia-Parker-on-five-works-and-the-pieces-that-inspired-them.html

Cornelia Parker Tate

‘My work is all about the potential of materials ­– even when it looks like they’ve lost all possibilities.

From: ’https://www.tate.org.uk/context-comment/video/cornelia-parker-talking-art 

Printing with light and glass:

 https://www.southbankcentre.co.uk/blog/cornelia-parker-art-printing-light-and-glass

General Election

Objects of obsession

Wikipedia

Categories
1: Landscape 5: Memory Abstract Artists Inspiration Urban

David Dernie

David Dernie is a Cambridge-based architect and artist.

His exhibition ‘Heat’ shown as part of Cambridge Open Studios in July 2018 was a series of abstract collaged paintings ‘exploring built and natural landscapes in a warming world’.

Paintings below shown with permission from the artist.

The overlaying of abstract shapes, textures and washes inspired my work for Project 5.2 Arcadia Recycled and point to further directions I could pursue using print, collage and paint techniques.

Categories
5: Memory Artists Collagraph

Bradley Hart

Bradley Hart makes striking pixelated bubblewrap art using computer algorithms and syringes to inject pigment into the bubblewrap pustules.

See his website: https://www.bradleyhart.ca

For details of his artistic process see his Artist Statement

 

Categories
4: Portrait Artists Exhibition Inspiration

Andrew Salgado

Andrew Salgado portraits Google

website http://www.andrewsalgado.com

Interview for Artnet

Andrew Salgado is a Canadian artist who works in London and has exhibited his work around the world. His paintings are large-scale works of portraiture that incorporate elements of abstraction and symbolic meaning.

Storytelling on vimeo

Categories
4: Portrait 5: Memory Artists Inspiration Self-portrait

Tracey Emin

See:

Google images for Tracey Emin Self Portrait

Tate page on Tracey Emin Self

Categories
Artists Inspiration Printmakers

Portrait Approaches

What is a portrait?

Portraits as a ‘likeness’ of an individual captured through painting, drawing and/or photography have been a part of human culture since prehistoric times. However portraits can have many different purposes that affect the way in which the concept of ‘likeness’ is interpreted,  the form of ‘capturing’.  Portraits vary widely in for example:

  • what is portrayed? is this a portrait of the face only (eg frontal, side or three quarters view)? is it just head and shoulders (what attitude?) is it the full body (what posture)? or part of the body only (eg hands? eyes? feet?) ? or is the main focus on context (some portraits contain objects and environment of the sitter without the sitter themselves)
  • external or internal ‘reality’? is the aim mainly a figurative likeness of external appearance? or more a ‘capturing of inner soul’ that permits abstraction and exaggeration of shapes, colours etc? or does it try to do both?

This is often affected by:

  • the relationship between the person portrayed and the person doing the portrayal: who commissioned it? who is paying? who is in control of the decisions? 
    • was the portrait commissioned by the subject? why and for whom? how do they wish themselves to be represented?
    • was the portrait instigated by the artist? using a paid model? or a friend/lover etc? why and for whom? do they have a specific artistic style?
  •  the context in which the portrait is to be viewed:
    • is it a private, personal painting to be seen by a few close friends and family members who know the person well? 
    • does the intended audience have particular views about what is a ‘good’ or ‘bad’ portrait? or are they more interested in innovative approaches?

These factors have varied significantly over time.

Evolution of approaches

‘Ideal beauties’ : ancient and medieval world

Portraits in the ancient world were very stylised – like the Photoshop social media images of today. These idealised images often said more about the social norms of beauty in different cultures than the sitter themselves – the sitter as they wish to be remembered.

Prehistoric cave paintings, pottery and statuettes depicted people in abstracted form. Some of these may have represented particular people eg chiefs, or deities where particular characteristics have been exaggerated eg fertility or facial features/hairstyles/clothing showing ethnic identity.

Egypt: portraits of rulers and gods were highly stylised, and most in profile, usually on stone, metal, clay, plaster, or crystal. Egyptian portraiture placed relatively little emphasis on likeness, at least until the period of Akhenaten in the 14th century BC.portrait bust of Queen Nefertiti sculpted in c.1360 bc

China: Portrait painting of notables in China probably goes back to over 1000 BC, though none survive from that age. Existing Chinese portraits go back to about 1000 AD

Bust of Socrates
Roman-Egyptian funeral portrait of a woman

Ancient Greek and Roman portraiture was often very idealised. But some  sculpted heads of rulers and famous personalities like Socrates (see discussion on Gumberg library) were depicted with relatively little flattery.

Middle Ages Most early medieval portraits were commissioned by , initially mostly of popes in Roman mosaics, and illuminated manuscripts.

Move to ‘Realism’: Renaissance to 18th Century

Economic and social changes in the role of the artist, and technological innovations eg use of oil paints that enabled finer brush strokes started a move towards more ‘realistic’ figurative depictions.

In Italy the Florentine and Milanese nobility wanted more recognisable representations of themselves. This stimulated experimentation and innovation particularly in creating convincing full and three-quarter views. Some drawings that were used as studies for religious art by artists like Leonardo da Vinci started to depict grotesque faces. However patrons were still concerned to project a certain image of themselves in their portraits – men with power or women portraits continued to depict an ideal of female beauty in both religious art and portraits like the Mona Lisa. It was at this time also that  artists like Leonardo and Pisanello started to add allegorical ‘contextual’ symbols to their secular portraits as in Lady with an ermine – the ermine is said to represent purity and moderation.

Grotesque heads. Leonardo da Vinci drawing.
Grotesque heads. Leonardo da Vinci drawing.
Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci

It was only however in Northern Europe that a real move to ‘warts and all’ depictions of real life occurred.  Portrait paintings by Durer, Jan van Eyck and  Holbein continued to be largely idealised – as for example Durer’s self-portraits.  Holbein’s portraits of Henry VIII are commissioned to create an image of supreme power, enhanced by costume and background trappings.

Albrecht Durer painted like Christ
Holbein the Younger: Henry the Eighth
Holbein the Younger: Henry the Eighth

But other artists like Bosch, Lucas van Leyden and Quinten Massys and later masters such as Pieter Aertsen en Pieter Bruegel started to produce  ‘politically incorrect’ paintings and prints of people and everyday life.

In the 16th Century artists increasingly experimented with printmaking techniques to produce figurative portraits as for example:

Rembrandt van Rijn  who painted powerful portraits of himself ‘warts and all’ as he grew older. In addition to paintings he also made etchings.

 Benedetto Castiglione who, influenced by Rembrandt, experimented with monoprint from 1640 to produce very detailed portraits.

18th and 19th Centuries: caricature and inner turmoil

This emphasis on idealism changed during the course of the 18th and 19th centuries.

The economic and social upheavals of the eighteenth century in countries like Britain and France led to the rise of political satire and caricature in which an irreverant approach to portraits of the rich and famous spread not only through painting but also prints.

While some Impressionists in France continued an idealised focus on fleeting impressions and light, other painters were experimenting with semi-abstraction and colour to portray inner lives.

Self-portraits began to be autobiographical, done at intervals tracking the evolution of an artist’s life and art. Gauguin used colour and semi-caricature to create a self-image. Courbet and Van Gogh painted numerous self-portraits with graphic portrayal of their internal mental turmoil.

‘Portrait of the Artist with the Yellow Christ’, 1889
Gustave Courbet, “Self-Portrait as the Desperate Man,” 1845, oil

See also: https://www.vangoghgallery.com/misc/selfportrait.html

20th century: abstraction and internal lives

In the 20th century many  artists took the focus on abstraction and internal mental states  even further, including:

  • Egon Schiele’s very explicit portrayal of sexual angst in his distinctive ‘blind contour style’
  • Fauvists and expressionists whose woodcut portraits and paintings used exaggerated forms of distortion and use of colour to express emotion and tried to capture ‘inner essence’ and/or the feelings of the artist towards the subject.
  • Picasso
  • Francis Bacon

Other artists like Andy Warhol started to look at the commercialisation of portrait images.

Contemporary:  the politics of portraiture: feminism and identity

Contemporary portraits now cover a broad spectrum of approaches and styles, drawing on approaches from photography as well as painting.

Some artists have taken a detailed and sensitive figurative approach, with  an emphasis on intensity and changing inner states in both portraits and self-portraits:

Other artists focus more on symbolic objects and autobiographical narrative than figurative representation of the subject themselves:

Sources

Angier, R., (2007) Train Your Gaze: A Practical and Theoretical Introduction to Portrait Photography, Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA Publishing SA.

Bikker, J., Webber, G. J. M., Wiesman, M. W. & Hinterding, E., (2014) Rembrandt: the late works, London: National Gallery.

Borchardt-Hume, A. & Ireson, N. (eds.) (2018) Picasso 1932: The EY Exhibition, London: Tate Publishing.

Brighton, A., (1966) Francis Bacon, London: Tate Gallery Publishing.

Brown, N., Tracey Emin, London: Tate Publishing.

Coppel, S., (1998) Picasso and Printmaking in Paris, London: South BGank Publishing.

Crippa, E. (ed.) (2018) All Too Human: Bacon, Freud and a Century of Painting Life, London: Tate Publishing.

Cumming, L., (2009) A Face to the World: on self-portraits, London: Harper Press.

Dumas, M., (2014) The Image as Burden, London: Tate Publishing.

Elderfield, J., (2017) Cezanne Portraits, London: National Portrait Gallery Publications.

Ewing, W. A., (2006) Face: The New Photographic Portrait, London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.

Freud, L., (2008) On Paper, London: Jonathan Cape.

Freud, L., (2012) Painting People, London: National Portrait Gallery.

Gale, M. & Stephens, C.(2008) Francis Bacon. London: Tate Publishing.

Gray, J., Nochlin, L., Sylvester, D. & Schama, S., (2005?) Jenny Saville, New York: Rizzoli.

Hambling, M., (1998) maggi & henrietta, London: Bloomsbury.

Hambling, M., (2006) Maggi Hambling the Works and Conversations with Andrew Lambirth, London: Unicorn Press Ltd.

Humphreys, R., (2004) Wyndham Lewis, London: Tate Publishing.

Kallir, J., (2003) Egon Schiele: Drawings and Watercolours, London: Thames & Hudson.

Lloyd, R., (2014) Hockney Printmaker, London: Acala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd.

Luckhardt, U. & Melia, P., (1995) Hockney: A Drawing Retrospective, London: Royal Academy of Arts and Thames & Hudson.

Marquis, A., (2018) Marcellin Desboutin, Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum.

Merck, M. & Townsend, C. (eds.) (2002) The Art of Tracey Emin, London: Thames & Hudson.

Moorhouse, P., (2013) A Guide to Twentieth Century Portraits, London: National Portrait Gallery.

Muller-Westermann, I. (ed.) (2015) Louise Bourgeois: I Have Been to Hell and Back, Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag.

Royalton-Kisch, M., (2006) Rembrandt as Printmaker, London: Hayward Gallery Touring.

Russell, J., (1971) Francis Bacon, London: Thames & Hudson.

Sanchez, L. G., (2004) Frida Kahlo, Mexico: Banco de Mexico.

Serres, K. & Wright, B., (2017) Soutine’s Portraits: Cooks, Waiters & Bellboys, London: The Courtauld Gallery.

Smee, S., (2007) Lucian Freud, Koln: Taschen.

Stevens, C. & Wilson, A. (eds.) (2017) David Hockney, London: Tate Publishing.

Vann, P., (2004) Face to Face: British self-portraits in the twentieth century, Bristol: Samson & Company Ltd.

Wye, D., (2017) Louise Bourgeois: An Unfolding Portrait, New York: MoMA.

Zigrosser, C., (1951) Prints and Drawings of Kathhe Kollwitz, New York: Dover Publications.

Galleries and exhibitions

Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam

From Bosch to Bruegel – Uncovering Everyday Life (November 2015 – January 2016)

Rembrandt Etchings permanent collection

British Museum

Picasso post-war prints: lithographs and aquatints (27 January – 3 March 2017)

Maggi Hambling – Touch: works on paper  (8 September 2016 –29 January 2017)

Defining beauty the body in ancient Greek art (26 March – 5 July 2015)

Drawing in silver and gold: Leonardo to Jasper Johns (10 September – 6 December 2015)

Recent acquisitions two sets of Picasso linocuts (10 January – 6 May 2014)

Germany divided: Baselitz and his generation From the Duerckheim Collection (6 February – 31 August 2014)

Courtauld Gallery, London

Soutine’s Portraits: Waiters, Cooks and Bellhops (October 19 2017 – January 21 2018)

Egon Schiele: The Radical Nude  (23 October 2014 to 18 January 2015)

The Spanish Line: Drawings from Ribera to Picasso (13 October 2011 to 15 January 2012)

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Degas’ Drinker: Portraits by Marcellin Desboutin (19th September 2017 – 25th February 2018) Drypoint portraits

Degas, Desboutin and Rembrandt: parallels in prints (27 October 2017 – 25 February 2018)

Degas: A Passion for Perfection  (3 October 2017 – 14 January 2018) prints in various media

Degas: Caricature and Modernity ( 12 September 2017 – 21 January 2018) lithographs and drypoints

National Gallery

Drawn in Colour: Degas from the Burrell (20 September 2017 – 7 May 2018)

Beyond Caravaggio  (12 October 2016 – 15 January 2017)

Rembrandt: The Late Works: (15 October 2014 to 18 January 2015)
Inventing Impressionism (4 March – 31 May 2015)

The Encounter: Drawings from Leonardo to Rembrandt (13 July – 22 October 2017)

Cézanne Portraits (October 26 2017 – February 11 2018)

Royal Academy

James Ensor Intrigue (29 October 2016 — 29 January 2017)

Tate Britain

All Too Human: Bacon, Freud and a Century of Painting Life (28 Feb – 27 Aug 2018)

David Hockney 9 February– 29 May 2017

Frank Auerbach  (9 Oct 2015 – 13 Mar 2016)

Categories
2: Abstraction Formal abstract Inspiration Printmakers Woodcut

Japanese landscape prints: Hiroshige and Hokusai

The woodblock prints of Hiroshige and Hokusai were the source for my work in Project 2.1: Formal Abstracts: Japanese landscape.

 

History of Japanese Woodblock Print

Ukiyo-e

In-depth video on history and development of techniques of Japanese woodcut from monochrome through painted monochrome prints to multiblock printing. It looks at its influence on Western artists like Van Gogh and Monet following the exhibition of Japanese art for the first time at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. It also looks at the modern day revival of ukiyo-e prints as paintings on shops in Tokyo regeneration.

Japanese woodblock prints with Paul Binnie

Lecture on background and underlying ideas in Japanese printing techniques.

Japanese woodblock printing History Ukiyo-e Jose Ortega

History of Japanese printing and way it spread and related to earlier Chinese and Buddhist prints.

Technique

The technique for printing texts and images was generally similar. The obvious differences were the volume produced when working with texts (many pages for a single work), and the complexity of multiple colours in some images. Images in books were almost always in monochrome (black ink only), and for a time art prints were likewise monochrome or done in only two or three colours.

The text or image was first drawn onto washi (Japanese paper), then glued face-down onto a plank of wood, usually cherry. Wood was then cut away, based on the drawing outlines. A small wooden hard object called a baren was used to press or burnish the paper against the inked woodblock to apply the ink to the paper. Although this may have been done purely by hand at first, complex wooden mechanisms were soon invented and adopted to help hold the woodblock perfectly still and apply proper pressure in the printing process. This was especially helpful with the introduction of multiple colours that had to be applied with precision over previous ink layers.

While, again, text was nearly always monochrome, as were images in books, the growth of the popularity of ukiyo-e brought with it demand for ever increasing numbers of colors and complexity of techniques. The stages of this development follow:

  • Sumizuri-e (墨摺り絵?, “ink printed pictures”)—monochrome printing using only black ink
  • Benizuri-e (紅摺り絵?, “crimson printed pictures”)—red ink details or highlights added by hand after the printing process;green was sometimes used as well
  • Tan-e (丹絵?)—orange highlights using a red pigment called tan
  • Aizuri-e (藍摺り絵?, “indigo printed pictures”), Murasaki-e (紫絵?, “purple pictures”), and other styles in which a single color was used in addition to, or instead of, black ink
  • Urushi-e (漆絵?)—a method that thickened the ink with glue, emboldening the image. Printers often used gold, mica, and other substances to enhance the image further. Urushi-e can also refer to paintings using lacquer instead of paint. Lacquer was rarely, if ever, used on prints.
  • Nishiki-e (錦絵?, “brocade pictures”)—a method of using multiple blocks for separate portions of the image, using a number of colors to achieve complex and detailed images. A separate block was carved to apply only the part of the image designated for a single color. Registration marks called kentō (見当) were used to ensure correspondence between the application of each block.

Contemporary Japanese woodblock

Katsutoshi Yuasa

Keizaburo Matsuzaki

Bibliography

Clark, T. (ed.) (2017) Hokusai: Beyond the Great Wave, London: Thames & Hudson and British Museum.

Pollard, C. & Watanabe, M. I., (2014) Hiroshige: Landscape, cityscape, Oxford: Ashmolean Museum.

Schroer, A. (ed.) (2005) Hiroshige, Berlin, Munich, London, New York: Prestel.

Schroer, A., (ed.) (2005) Hokusai, Berlin, Munich, London, New York: Prestel.

Exhibitions

Hokusai: Beyond the Great Wave  (25 May – 13 August 2017)

Picasso post-war prints: lithographs and aquatints (27 January – 3 March 2017)