Australian printmaker. Combines drawing, photography and lithography
Australian printmaker. Combines drawing, photography and lithography
Etching and differential inking
See parts 2and3
There is no exact date for the beginnings of collagraph printing. It evolved alongside other intaglio and relief printing, particularly with the move towards abstraction, introduction of ‘found’ materials and use of collage and mixed media in 1950s and 1960s. It was also helped by the widespread availability of new, cheap materials like acrylics and very strong adhesives.
Pierre Roche – sculptor developed gypsographic printing using bas-relief plaster engraving – inked in relief and printed by hand onto dampened paper, leaving a slightly raised blind embossing. Later he added layers of an adhesive called gypsum onto metal plate for an embossed effect.
Bauhaus: Klee, Picasso, Braque, Schwitters and Moholy-Nagy used collage materials and this was adopted by printmakers.
Rolf Nesch: one of the first artists to have consciously used collage to create collagraph printing plates. He gave depth and texture to prints by soldering out metal shapes and wire to metal printing plates. He then took this further by drilling holes in plates and sewing to the base plate. The prints were so deep he hneeded 8 blankets to get the right pressure and very heavy strong paper.
William Hayter developed viscosity printing – a technique that allowed a single printing plate to be printed in many colours. The basic principle is that the viscosity or stickiness of an ink can be reduced by adding linseed oil. A stiff viscous ink will absorb and mix with an oily ink laid over the top. But if an ink full of oil is placed on the plate first, it will reject a dry viscous ink and will not mix with it.
Richard Hamilton mixed painting with forms of printmaking, such as collotype, lithograph and silkscreen.
Joan Miro created numerous collagraphs combining carborundum, aquatint and etching.
Henry Moore used collograph and resist techniques in versions of his drawings
Brenda Hartill has been very influential in UK, building on Hayter’s techniques of viscosity printing.
See Logbook 4 pp 6-7 for discussion of some of her collagraph prints.
Hughie O-Donoghue produces large abstract figures using acrylic and carborundum
See Logbook 4 pp10-11 for discussion of some of his prints and paintings.
Other collagraph artists:
Katie Jones Logbook 4 Collagraph p8
Helga Thomson Logbook 4 Collagraph p8
Mari French Logbook 4 Collagraph p9
Tessa Horrocks Logbook 4 Collagraph p9
Kim Major George Logbook 4 Collagraph p12
Jet James Logbook 4 Collagraph p12
Laurie Rudlin Logbook 4 Collagraph p12
Marlene Groinic Logbook 4 Collagraph p14-15
Diane Bamford Logbook 4 Collagraph p15
Linoleum was invented in the early 1860s and first used for printing in 1890 in Germany for the manufacture of wallpaper. By the early 20th century it had been popularized for artists’ prints. Linocut gained particular favour in poorer cultures that were less inhibited by a tradition of fine printing. In revolutionary Russia important linocuts were produced from about 1918. In Canada in the 1920s and 1930s the linocut was more common than the woodcut.
Linocut artists have been influenced by earlier woodcut traditions, including Japanese woodcut traditions and and also geometric forms and abstraction from African and Oceanic art. Linocut artists like the Grosvenor School and Lyubov Popova (see below) have also been influence by major art movements of the twentieth century, particularly cubism, futurism and constructivism. The possibility for dynamic mark-making and bold shapes with simplified colour make lino very well suited for this type of design.
Linocut artists used many of the techniques earlier developed for woodcut – both markmaking and use of tone and structure. But they also developed new directions with Picasso’s use of the reduction linocut (that can also be done with any other surface like wood). Linocut artists became particularly interested in dynamic shapes and use of colour influenced by Futurism.
Later prejudice grew up against linoleum block printing, as suitable only for children, amateurs and the uncultured. The linocut’s popularity also fell with the rise of commercial collaboration between printmaker and publisher, which encouraged more technically complex media.
But recently there has been a resurgence of interest in linocut as an art form. It is a key part of the many printmaking courses as an easier introduction to relief printing than woodcut. It has therefore become widely used for things like greetings cards. But there are also contemporary linocut artists doing innovative work – including very large pieces that exploit its potential for being cut into smaller blocks and because of its relatively light weight. There has been development of a wide range surface etching and texturing techniques using different tools.
An Austrian artist and teacher popularised the material for artists’ prints. He recognised the medium’s potential to instruct children in colour and design: it was cheap, easily worked with simple tools, adaptable to water-based inks, and versatile. Cižek toured Europe and North America with examples by his pupils and influenced art education worldwide.
German Expressionists 1905-1920s
The first major artist to adopt linocut as a medium was Erich Heckel, and his earliest linocut is dated 1903. In his Frog Queen (1905) linoleum’s lack of grain bias is evident in the perpendicular clusters of gouge strokes.
Artists from Die Brucke regularly used linocut instead of woodcut from 1905 to 1920s. These focused on bold shapes and expressive distortion in monochrome prints. The use of lino was ideal for this, although the fine lines and use of woodgrain etxture in some of the woodcuts was not possible.
This German Expressionist tradition has been continued by modern artists like Georg Baselitz who produces very large linocuts and combination prints often on subjects of political protest.
Matisse executed 70 linocuts between 1938 and 1952. These are similar in both style and subject matter to his black and white monoprints of figures. They are executed on lino in a fluent white-line technique, taking evident advantage of the smooth passage of the knife through the soft material and the variation in expressive line that can be achieved.
Picasso used linoleum for popular posters in the early 1950s. In 1959 he began a series of innovative colour linocuts, developing the reduction print technique. He developed a method of printing in different colours progressive states cut on a single block, so that the finished print comprises layered impressions of all the states.
Lyubov Popova was a Russian avant-garde and ‘new woman’ artist (Cubist, Suprematist and Constructivist) painter and designer. She produced a number of linocuts in constructivist style.
Claude Flight (1881–1955)
The most important British advocate of the linocut. He taught linocut from 1925 at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art in London and emphasized its accessibility to the proletariat. His images are very dynamic with strong curvature distortion.
The work of the Grosvenor School has also influenced some contemporary linocut artists like the Canadian Gary Ratushniak who was trained by Sybil Andrews draws also on native America traditions.
Edward Bawden is another English artist and illustrator who often worked in watercolour, but also produced many linocuts. His work is more figurative and many of his paintings are from his experience as war artist in the Second World War.
Linocuts were very popular as effective and cheap media for mass communication by African American artists involved in the American Civil Rights movement. Influenced by both African and Mexican art they depicted images of racial and sexual issues. Key proponents were:
Some of the sources I have looked at (in alphabetical order). For images and more detailed discussion see Logbook 2: Linocut at page references given below.
Type of relief print in which the artist cuts the design into linoleum as the printing surface, using gouges and knives.
Linocuts resemble woodcuts, although the softness and lack of grain of linoleum, which permit the artist to cut fluently in every direction, deprive cuts of the vigour and bias often seen in woodcuts. As fine networks of printing lines tend to crumble in linoleum, broader effects are usually sought. As the surface of linoleum is smooth, unless specially treated, it will not print with a texture that is visible in some woodcuts. The slickness of linoleum can produce a distinctive curdled effect in broadly inked areas, as seen in the Frog Queen (1905) by Erich Heckel; in this print linoleum’s lack of grain bias is evident.
Linoleum is a man-made sheet flooring composed primarily of oxidized linseed oil and ground cork. Battleship linoleum, a variety c. 6 mm thick, is frequently recommended, as is Desk-top, a thinner sheet. With the advent of synthetic floorings, linoleum became less easily available. In the late 20th century it was no longer produced in the USA but was manufactured in Scotland and commonly sold only in artists’ shops. For printmaking, linoleum may be mounted on to plywood, to produce a block that can be printed mechanically.
Type-high linoleum blocks can easily be printed with type and have been used in book illustration. Because sheet linoleum weighs relatively little and can be printed by hand, it has been used for exceptionally large printed images. Because linocuts are so easily printed by hand, they have been favoured by many artists who personally produce very small editions, although mechanically printed editions of as many as 25,000 are reported (Yeaton, p. 21). Since linoleum lends itself to broad effects, it is particularly adapted to multicolour printing, usually with a separate block for each colour.
Choosing an image
The important thing here is to pay attention to design – strong tones, simple shapes, patterns and textures.
Masks can be used over portions of the image, parts of the image can be hand-coloured. Blocks can also be rotated in different colours or tones to make abstract images.
Planning the image
It is likely that any sketch will need to be adjusted or simplified to make a good linocut image. To simplify the shapes, adjust the edges and clarify the movement of the eye though the image. It is very useful to do Notan structure drawings to check the underlying tonal structure and dominant shapes.
Images can be constructed through positive and/or negative shapes. Linocuts can be mostly cut away to leave lines on paper background, or mostly the colour of the ink. Or a combination of the two. It is worth experimenting with reversing the tonal values to explore different interpretations of an image.
Lino is a direct printing process so the image will be reversed when printed. It is useful to check the design through using a mirror.
This can be done using white chalk on black paper, experimenting with different marks to simulate linocut marks. Black and white collage can also be useful.
It is particularly useful to do this digitally using a programme on the iPad like Procreate. This enables you to design specific brushes that mimic linocut tools and freely and quickly experiment with different versions, interpretations and colours of a design.
Transferring the image onto the lino
Tracing paper or a lightbox can be used to help reverse the image.
This can be done using tracing paper and a soft pencil, or carbon paper. Or simply drawing on.
It is useful also to go over the black areas with pencil or inl and brush so that the cuts will be clearly seen.
Cutting the lino
Cut marks are part of the identity of a linocut. These can give a sense of movement and life. They can also give a wide variety of textural contrast. Sometimes a clean area with no cut marks is required.
Cut along the surface of the lino – you don’t need top cut deep. Even pressure can create a smooth line.
Varying the pressure and angle of the tool and/or speed of cutting gives a more varied and expressive line.
If using a large lino block, or cutting away large areas, it is best to mount the lino on a solid surface like hardboard with glue. This will keep the plate rigid through repeated use. This is particularly important in reduction or combination prints.
Veining tool: to cut an outline around the largest shapes so that they are easier to cut out. And for the finest lines and smallest areas.
Gouge: has a rounded blade that cuts into the lino first and leaves a round end to each cut. The gouge can be pushed into the lino and make a long smooth stroke. Short stabbed cuts can also be made as textural marks. Rough-edged marks by rocking from side to side. They come in a range of different widths and vary from shallow C-shapes to deep U-shapes.
V-tools: have a triangular blade that will leave a neat v-shaped cut. Longer cuts can be made and then tapered by reducing the pressure on the blade as it reaches the end of the groove. Short stabbed cuts will be triangular in appearance. A square end to the cut can be made by suddenly stopping the movement and levering the lino shard away from the block. They come in a range of different widths.
Blades: Angled and flat-end blades are designed for cutting a line around a shape before using a gouge to make the edge sharp, particularly if you want this to make a corner or a point. They can also be used to remove the top edge of the scoop marks or the ridges of cut marks if a clean area is required.
Scoops: ?? not quite worked out what to do with these.
It is useful to check the image as you go along by lying a thin piece of paper over the lino and using pencil or a graphite stick. This helps avoid over-cutting and better judgement of shapes. At a later stage it is useful to do proof prints.
Printing the image
Inking the plate
Use relief inks – water-based or oil-based. Relief inks are stiffer than etching inks.
Mix the ink into the colour you want with a palette knife. Use thinner ink if you have a lot of fine cuts.
Use a hard roller to get sharp outlines. A softer roller will go slightly inside the cuts and give a softer image. Ideally the width of the roller should be bigger than the block. Use a small roller to go over finer areas if necessary – check the corners and edges in particular.
You need an even coating of ink that is not thick or lumpy. The ink on the roller should look like fine suede and make a very gentle swish when rolling out. There should be no spots or marks in the ink because these will be transferred to the block, and probably to the paper. It is much better to apply several layers of thin ink than one thick layer – ink that is too thick may ooze down into the cut marks and loss of detail will occur.
You can re-ink the lino several times for the same colour, or to mix colours.
Relief prints are usually printed onto smooth dry paper, but can be printed on dampened paper.
Thinner more sensitive papers can be used, particularly if printing by hand.
Registration enables you to print an edition with every print being positioned in the same place on each sheet of paper. It also enables you to over print a new layer of colour over a previous print.
Registration methods include:
In all these cases the top left hand corner of the back of the paper should be marked to ensure it is placed the right way up.
The linocut can be printed in a simple screw or lever press or by hand, by rubbing the paper against the inked block with a spoon, rolling pin or baren (a slightly concave disc sheathed in bamboo), or by laying the inked linoleum on to the paper and hammering the back of the block. These hand-printing methods can also be used to print on to textiles, or the inked block can be turned on to fabric stretched on the floor and trodden on by the printer. Hand printing can give a more sensitive image.
If using a printing press, the paper can be put on top of the block if you want some embossing. Also if you want to selectively dampen the paper to give texture to the inking. If you want easy registration by eye then put the paper down first and place the block on top.
If corners have been cut back, or to avoid ridge marks at the edges of the lino block on the paper, use lino runners along the edge to stop the rollers sinking onto the paper.
Editioning (single colour or multi-block)
Number the prints in the order you take them. Marked Print No/Total prints.
The edition is only true if the block or blocks remain true without any additional cutting during the print run. It is usual to print all pages of the first colour together, then the next etc. (But not if you are changing the colours of ink on the blocks). The first print is labelled the artist’s proof.
A multi-block linoprint is where each colour is printed from a separate lino block, cut to match the original design.
To begin you need to create a design that can be printed in two or more colours (often 3 colours is good). Again simplicity of shapes is key. In some cases a black registration block is used containing the finished design to help cut the different layers and also unify the image at the end.
When you have drawn your design outlines and solid dark areas you can colour in areas of your design with pens.
Printing is generally done light to dark, using light colours for the largest areas on the least-cut block. This enables layering of colours to produce a range of different tones and hues as the inks mix and overlay each other.
Block 1: lightest with only the areas that will remain white cut out. This image then needs to be transferred from the paper to Block 2 while the ink is still wet.
Block 2: darker colours with colour of block 1 cut out. This image then needs to be transferred from the paper to Block 3 etc if more colour blocks are used while the ink is still wet.
Blocks 3+ and so on.
Registration block goes last.
REGISTRATION IS KEY!!!
A technique that creates a multiple colour print from one block.
First prepare a coloured design and transfer it to the block as in other methods. It is useful to have a master tracing to work from as successive layers will disappear. Colouring areas to be retained helps prevent mistakes.
The first cuts are the colour of the paper to be printed on. The surface is then reduced for each successive colour, usually working from the lightest to the darkest. Remember ‘CUT TO SAVE’ previous colour. Some cuts can also be masked if you make a mistake.
As you cannot go back, a batch of prints large enough for the print run should be done at each stage.
Reduction prints are usually printed in opaque inks as you want each successive colour to sit on top of the previous layer (is this true?? Or do you want mixing???)